18 Aristotele Metafisica 12 6 Il tempo non pu veni

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18 Aristotle, Metaphysics 12. 6: ‘Lokaci ba zai iya zo a cikin kasancewa ko gushe zama. idan lokaci bai wanzu ba, akwai
zai iya zama ba kafin da kuma bayan. ‘
Philo, da Iskandariya Bayahude na St Paul ta lokaci, kula da cewa lokaci da aka halitta da halittu (De
opificio mundi 26). Da dama farkon Nasãra suka ce guda, ciki har da Ambrose. Plotinus (3. 9. 8. 1 JJu.) Ya ce
cewa wannan tambaya me ya sa Mahaliccin halitta ne tambaye ta mutanen da suke dauka cewa abin da ko da yaushe aka yi
a farko a cikin lokaci. Kamar Augustine, Plotinus yana zaton lokaci bai antedate halittu (3. 7. 12. 23; kamar
Plato, Timaeus 38b6).
19 Plotinus (3.7. 1. 1-13) lura cewa, mun yi zaton mun san abin da lokaci shi ne har muka fara tunani game da shi
a cikin zurfin. Augustine ta tattaunawa na lokaci ƙunshi mutane da yawa amo mara sa na falsafa muhawara tsakanin Platonists,
Aristotelians, kuma Stoics, amma shi ne na ƙwarai domin ta dangantaka da m ko ‘Academic’ matsayin cewa ga
tunanin mutum abin tambaya shi ne unanswerable. A kalla Augustine bai amsa ba shi. Ya tambaya ne
Characteristically kasa falsafa fiye da addini: abin ji za mu iya yi da hargitsi na tarihi da kuma
bayyana meaninglessness na m events? Tsakanin da kuma nan gaba bil’adama abubuwan da abin da ya so
kira wani distending, wani yanã shimfiɗe a kan wani tara. Saboda haka ya Picks sama Aristodc ta ba da shawara (Physics 4. 14) cewa
lokaci ne mai kwarewa na rai, amma ya ba da wannan ra’ayin wani sabon ci gaba ta hanyar ganin ‘memory’ kamar yadda Cardinal zuwa
da fahimta lokaci.
20 The shawara nuna mazan muhawara a cikin falsafa makarantu, msl cewa idan lokaci Ba za a iya yadda ya kamata zama
kasu kashi da, yanzu, da kuma nan gaba, sa’an nan kawai ta indivisibility zauna a live zaɓi. Wane ne Sextus Empiricus
(Shaci na Pyrrhonism 3. 143-5) tserar taƙaitawar da m muhawara cewa duk tattaunawa na
lokaci karshen a maganar banza, don haka ba abin da za a iya sani na wasu a wannan batun.
21 Ga kasa, XI. xxix (39) a kan muhimmi ‘shagala daga multiplicity’ a tunani game da, yanzu,
da kuma nan gaba, a lokacin da gaskiyar dawwama ne simultaneity a halin yanzu.
22 Kamar Plotinus (4. 4. 12. 28-32), Augustine damar domin fassarar fore-sanin
nan gaba kamar yadda hurarrun haske game da ma’anar events maimakon a mantic bugu zuwa ɗaguwar ruhaniya tare da dakatar da dalilin.
23 Augustine ra’ayin da aka tsammani da Stoics.
24 Augustine forestalls Kirista sukar wanda ya iya tunanin da ya abstruse inquiries m daga dace
aiki na Littafi Mai Tsarki tafsirin, da kuma kiran da shiga tsakani na Almasihu high-firist wanda ba damar yin amfani da
Uban asirai.
25 Plotinus (3. 7. 8. 8-19) kamar yadda ya ƙaryata game da wannan ra’ayi. A ra’ayi ne da za a samu a St Basil. amma
Augustine iya samun tuna Plato ta Timaeus (39 cd) wanda ya samuwa a cikin Cicero ta Latin version.
Wurare da dama a zamanin d marubuta, daga marubucin Farawa 1: 14, dole, mu lura cewa shekaru, watanni, da kuma
kwanaki suna dogara ne a sake zagayowar na samaniya jikinsu. Amma Augustine ta shaida ne cewa babu ra’ayi game da yanayin da
lokaci za a iya samu daga wannan, ko daga motsi na wani jiki na zahiri. Lokaci ne ba m da
raka’a ta wanda muka Kodayake auna shi.
26 Plotinus (3. 7. 12. 34) yana da guda hoto.
27 Plotinus 3. 7. 11. 41 (tr. Armstrong) yayi magana akan lokaci kamar yadda ‘a yada fita (diastasis) na rayuwa … cikin rãyuwar
rai a cikin wani motsi na nassi daga hanya daya na rai zuwa wani ‘. Wannan rubutu na iya yi rinjayi
Augustine ke coining da kalmar dislenlio. Amma a Augustine wannan m kwarewa na yada
daga rai a successiveness kuma a bambancin kwatance mai raɗaɗi, kuma m kwarewa, sabõda haka, ya iya
magana na ceto kamar yadda kuɓuta daga lokaci (gwama sama, ix. iv (10)). Taken da aka ɓullo da kasa,
musamman a XI. xxix (39) inda St Paul ta harshen game da ‘ana miƙa’ (Phil. 3: 13) wãyi nasaba
tare da tunani na Plotinus (6. 6. 1.5) cewa multiplicity ne mai fadowa daga Daya kuma shi ne ‘kara a
watsi ‘.
28 Ambrose ta yamma waƙar yabon Allah.
29 Plotinus (3. 7. 11): Lokacin ne rai wucewa daga daya Jihar rayuwa zuwa wani, kuma ba a waje da
rai.
30 See sama XI. xxvi (33).
31 Augustine ta image na tarihi tsari ne cewa da wani gudãna kogin ko koguna, da yawa m

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18 Aristotle, Metaphysics 12. 6: ‘Time hiki ole e hele mai i loko o i paha oki e ia; ina i ole nei manawa, malaila
hiki e ole ma mua a ma hope. ‘
Philo, ka hanauia Iudaio o St Paul ka manawa, malama i ka hana manawa me na cosmos (De
opificio mundi 26). i kakahiaka nui Kristiano mau olelo i ka ia, a me Ambrose. Plotinus (3. 9. 8. 1 ff.) I olelo mai
i ka ninau ke kumu o ka Mea nana i hana hana ua noi ia e kanaka, ka poe e holoholo ana i i mau ua i
i ka hoomaka ana i ka manawa. Like Augustine, Plotinus manao manawa ‘aʻole i antedate na cosmos (3. 7. 12. 23; like
Plato, Timea 38b6).
19 Plotinus (3.7. 1. 1-13) E nńnń pono i ia mākou manaʻo mākou i ka manawa mea a mākou hoʻomaka i ka manaʻo e pili ana ia
i ka hohonu. Augustine ka kūkākūkā o ka manawa he nui Keia o philosophical paio kālaimanaʻo i waena o Platonists,
Aristotelians, a me ka poe Setoiko, akā, mea kupaianaha no konaʻo Solomona me ka-Liloa a ‘KU¯’ wahi ia no ka
ke kanaka manao ke ninau mea unanswerable. Ma ka liʻiliʻi loa Augustine ‘aʻole e olelo aku ai ia. Kona ninau o
characteristically emi philosophical ma mua o haipule: ka hoohalike hiki mākou e o ka chaos o ka mōʻaukala a me ka
maopopo meaninglessness o ka mea i hahai ana ka mea mamuli o kekahi hanana? Ma waena o hala a me ka wā e hiki mai manaʻo kanaka hana i kona makemake
kapa aku i kekahi distending, he hohola mai ma luna o ka hoowalaniaia iho au. Wahi aku oia i kaʻohiʻana i mai Aristodc ka kamaʻilio (ke kālaikūlohea 4. 14) i
manawa o ka hana ana o ka uhane, akā, e hāʻawi mai i kēia manaʻo i ka hou ‘ana ma ka ike ana’ iaiyoe ‘like cardinal i
ka comprehension o ka manawa.
20 Ke manaʻo hoʻopiʻi Hōʻike ‘mua paio kālaimanaʻo i loko o ka philosophical kula, e laʻa me ia ina manawa Hoʻomakaukau No Kona Hiki ole pono e
maheleia i hala, makana, a me ka wā e hiki mai, laila wale kona indivisibility koe i ka noho koho. Sextus Empiricus
(Outlines o Pyrrhonism 3. 143-5) e mālama ana nā hōʻuluʻulu manaʻo o ka-Liloa manaʻo hoʻopiʻi kū’ē i nā mea a pau o kēia hui kūkā o
manawa hope ma ka nonsense, no laila, i mea e hiki ke ikeia no kekahi i loko o keia pili ana.
21 E nānā hoʻi ma lalo nei, XI. xxix (39) ma luna o ka hoʻomaopop ‘ana i’ ka hihia o ka multiplicity ‘ma ka noʻonoʻo e pili ana i hala iho nei, e noho ana,
a me ka wā e hiki mai, i ka wa a ka ike maopopo o ka loa o simultaneity i loko o ka manawa.
22 Like Plotinus (4. 4. 12. 28-32), Augustine e leie aku no ke ano o ka mua-ike o ka
wā e hiki mai i hoʻoulu ‘anaʻikeʻia i loko o ka manaʻo o nā hanana ma mua hoʻi o ka mantic akaku me ka wehe o ke kumu.
23 Augustine ka nānaina i mua mai e ka poe Setoiko.
24 Augustine forestalls Karistiano kiʻiʻoniʻoni, ka poe i manao i kona abstruse hoʻouna i nā ninau loihi mai kona pono
hana o ka Mea Paipala exegesis, a ke pule aku nei i ka ‘uao’ ana o Kristo ke kahuna-nui ka mea näna e komo i ka
Ka Makua i ka mea pohihihi.
25 Plotinus (3. 7. 8. 8-19) hoi hoowahawaha mai i kēia nānaina. Ke manao nei ia e loaʻa i loko o St Basil. akā,
Augustine ke i ma ka manao Plato ka Timea (39 CD) a ua loaʻa i loko o Cicero ka Lakina mana.
Lehulehu kahiko moʻolelo, mai ke kumu mai o Genesis 1: 14 hookae pili, ike ia mākou makahiki, mahina, a me ka
lā i ka nānā ‘ana ma luna o ka pōʻaiapuni o ka lani kino. Akā, Augustine ka loulou mea i ole ahuoi e pili ana i ke ‘ano o ka
manawa hiki ke loko mai o keia, a mai ka neʻeʻana mai o kekahi physical kino. Manawa mea ole’ālike me ka
huahelu ma a mākou ordinarily ana ia.
26 Plotinus (3. 7. 12. 34) mai ka ia hoʻi ke kaha kiʻi.
27 Plotinus 3. 7. 11. 41 (tr. Armstrong) olelo o ka manawa like ‘me ka e hohola mai (diastasis) o ke ola … i ke ola o
kaʻuhane i loko o ka neʻeʻana mai o ka hooholo ia, mai kekahiʻaoʻao o ke ola i kekahi ‘. Kēia kikokikona paha ua alakaʻi ai
Augustine Ka coining o ka makahiki dislenlio. Akā, i loko o Augustine i kēia manaʻoʻike hana o ka mahuahua ana
mai o ka uhane ma ka successiveness, a me nāʻaoʻao o ke ola a me ka manao nui ka hoao ana, no laila, i ka mea e hiki
kuka kamailio iki o ke ola, e like me ka hoola ana mai ka manawa (cf. luna, ix. IV. (10)). Ke theme like Ua ulu ia ma lalo nei,
oi loa aku hoi ma xi. xxix (39) kahi St Paul ka ‘ōlelo e pili ana i’ i hohola ‘(Phil 3:. 13) lilo ia i ua hoʻopili
me ka manao o Plotinus (6. 6. 1.5) ia multiplicity mea i haule, mai ka One a me ka mea ‘waiho loihi ana ia ma ka
hoopuehu ‘.
28 Ambrose ka ahiahi Himeni.
29 Plotinus (3. 7. 11): Time mea o ka uhane o ka hala, mai kekahi wahi o ke ola i kekahi, a me ka mea i waho i ka
uhane.
30 E nānā ma luna XI. XXVI (33).
31 Augustine ka ke kiʻi o ka mōʻaukala kaʻina mea ia o kekahi e kahe ana o ka muliwai a me na muliwai, a me na mea he nui kai

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