18 Aristotele Metafisica 12 6 Il tempo non pu veni

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18 Aristotle, Metaphysics 12. 6: ‘Nako e ka ke a kena ho kapa ho kgaotsa ho ba; haeba nako ne a le sieo, ho na le
e ka ba ha ho pele ho ‘me ka mor’a.’
Philo, e Alexandria Mojuda ea nako St Paul, o lula ka nako eo o ne a bōpiloe ka bokahohle bo hlophisehileng le (De
opificio mundi 26). Bakreste ba ‘maloa, mathoasong a re e tšoanang, ho akarelletsa le Ambrose. Plotinus (3. 9. 8. 1 ff.) E re:
hore potso na ke hobane’ng ha ‘Mōpi oa baka e botsoa ke batho ba nka hore seo e leng kamehla e ne
le ho tloha ka nako. Joaloka Augustine, Plotinus nahanang hore nako ha e antedate ea bokahohleng bo hlophisehileng (3. 7. 12. 23; jwalo
Plato, Timaeus 38b6).
19 Plotinus (tiro 3.7. 1. 1-13) e re re nahana re tsebe seo nako e ho fihlela re qala ho nahana ka eona
ka botebo. puisano Augustine oa nako e na o lumellana le tse ngata tsa lipuisano filosofi har’a Platonists,
Aristotelians, le Bastoike, empa e tsotehang bakeng sa amana lona le lekhonono kapa ‘Academic’ boemo ba hore e le hore
kelello ea motho potso ke unanswerable. Bonyane Augustine ha araba eona. Potso ea hae e
characteristically tlase filosofi ho feta ba bolumeli: kutloisiso efe ho ka re etsa ba pherekano ea histori le
totobala meaninglessness ea liketsahalo tse latellanang tse? Pakeng tsa liphihlelo tse fetileng ‘me nakong e tlang moloko oa batho seo a tla
bitsa le distending, le otlolla ka rack ka. Kahoo a Picks fihlela tlhahiso Aristodc ya (fisiks 4. 14) hore
nako ke phihlelo ea moea, empa o fana ka maikutlo a ena le ntshetsopeleng e ncha ke ho bona ‘memori kapa’ e le mok’hadinale ho
kutloisiso ea nako.
20 khang The bontša lipuisano ba baholo ba likolo tsa filosofi, mohlala hore ha nako e ke ke hantle ho
arotsoe ka nakong e fetileng, hona joale, ‘me nakong e tlang, ka nako eo feela arohane lona e ntse e le a ke a phele kgetho. Sextus Empiricus
(Likemiso tsa Pyrrhonism 3. 143-5) boloka kakareso la likhang le lekhonono hore dipuisano kaofela
nako qetellong ka nang kelello, e le hore ha ho letho le ka tsejoa ka ho itseng tabeng ena.
21 See tlase, XI. xxix (39) ka tlhaho ‘ho tšitiso ea multiplicity’ ka ho nahana ka nakong e fetileng, hona joale,
le nakong e tlang, ha e le hantle oa bosafeleng ke simultaneity ba bojoale.
22 Joaloka Plotinus (4. 4. 12. 28-32), Augustine o lumella bakeng sa tlhaloso ea etelletsoa-tsebo ea
nakong e tlang e le temohisiso le bululetsoeng ka se boleloang ke liketsahalo fapana le ho ba ecstasy mantic le ho fanyeha a ho nahana.
pono 23 Augustine o ile lebeletse ke Bastoike.
24 Augustine forestalls bahlahlobisisi ba Bakreste ba ka ‘na nahana ka dipatlisiso hae abstruse thōko ho tloha e loketseng ea hae
Mosebetsi oa ho exegesis Bibele, ‘me invokes e lipakeng tsa Kreste tse phahameng-moprista ea fana ka ho fihlella ho
liphiri ntate.
25 Plotinus (3. 7. 8. 8-19) Ka tsela e tšoanang lahla maikutlo ana. Maikutlo a ke ho fumanoa St Basil. empa
Augustine le ka ba le ka ho Timaeus kelello Plato e (39 Cd) e neng e fumaneha ka Cicero o Latin tlhahiso.
Tse ngata tsa bangoli ba boholo-holo, ho tloha ka mongoli oa Genese 1: 14 ho ya pele, hlokomela hore rona lilemo, likhoeli, ‘me
matsatsi a li thehiloe potoloho ea lihloliloeng tsa leholimo. Empa khang Augustine ke hore ha ho na leseli mabapi le mofuta wa
nako ka tsoa ena, kapa ho tswa ho motsamao oa ‘mele ofe kapa’ meleng. Nako e sa le tsoanang le
diyuniti leo ka sebele re tloaelo lekanya eona.
26 Plotinus (3. 7. 12. 34) e na le papiso e tšoanang.
27 Plotinus 3. 7. 11. 41 (tr. Armstrong) e bua ka nako e le ‘otlolla (diastasis) tsa bophelo … bophelo ba
ho moea oa ka motsamao oa temana e tsoang tsela e ‘ngoe ea bophelo ba ho e’ ngoe ‘. temana ena e ka ‘na eaba susumetsoa
Augustine li coining tsa dislenlio telele. Empa Augustine phihlelo ena kelello ea ho jala
ho tsoa ha moea ka successiveness le ka litaelo tse sa tšoaneng ke bohloko le ho tšoenyeha phihlelo, e le hore a ka se khonang
boledisano oa poloko ea ka ho lopolloa ka nako (cf. holimo, song ix. IV (10)). sehlooho se reng e ntshetswa pele ka tlaase,
haholo-holo XI. xxix (39) moo puo St Pauluse mabapi le ‘ntse a otlolla’ (Bafil. 3: 13) e ba amahanngoa
le mohopolo oa Plotinus (6. 6. 1.5) hore multiplicity ke oela ho tswa ho e ‘ngoe le e’ atoloswa ka
hasanyang ‘.
28 Ambrose oa mantsiboea sefela.
29 Plotinus (3. 7. 11): Nako e ntse e feta le moea oa ho tloha boemong ba e ‘ngoe ea bophelo ba ho e’ ngoe, ‘me ha se ka ntle ho
moea.
30 See holimo XI. xxvi (33).
setšoantšo 31 Augustine o ea ho ea histori ke hore ho ba nōka e phallang kapa linōka, le batho ba bangata ba lipula

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18 Aristotle, Metaphysics 12. 6: ‘Nguva haagoni kupinda kuva kana kurega kuva; kana nguva haripo, ipapo
aigona kuva vasati uye pashure. ‘
Philo, ivo chokuArekizandiria muJudha St yaPauro nguva, anoramba kuti nguva akasikwa pezvakasikwa (De
opificio Mundi 26). VaKristu vanoverengeka vokutanga kutaura chete, kusanganisira Ambrose. Plotinus (3. 9. 8. 1 zvi-.) Inoti
kuti mubvunzo sei Musiki anosika akakumbirwa nevanhu vari kuzvitutumadza kuti icho nguva dzose ari akanga
imwe kutanga munguva. Kufanana Augustine, Plotinus anofunga nguva asingadi antedate pezvakasikwa (3. 7. 12. 23; sezvo
Plato, waTimio 38b6).
19 Plotinus (3,7. 1. 1-13) rinoti kuti tinofunga tinoziva kuti nguva yava kusvikira tinotanga nezvazvo
zvakadzama. Augustine panokurukurwa nguva rine Zvisaririra dzakawanda nharo ouzivi pakati Platonists,
Aristotelians, nevaStoiki, asi zvinoshamisa kuti riine vane chokwadi kana ‘Academic’ nzvimbo kuti
pfungwa dzevanhu mubvunzo mhinduro. Kanenge Augustine haapinduri nayo. mubvunzo wake
characteristically zvishoma kwouzivi pane zvechitendero: ipi tingasarudza renyonganyonga nhoroondo uye
pachena chinangwa zviri zvinotevedzana zviitiko? Pakati kare uye ramangwana vanhu zvakaitika zvaanoda
dana munhu distending, mumwe kutandavara pamusoro pani. Nokudaro anotora pfungwa Aristodc raMwari (Physics 4. 14) kuti
nguva chiitiko mweya, asi anopa pfungwa iyi kuwedzera itsva nokuona ‘ndangariro’ sezvo mufundisi kuti
kunzwisisa nguva.
20 The nharo kunoratidza nharo vakura muzvikoro kwouzivi semuenzaniso kuti kana nguva Havagoni zvakanaka kuva
rakakamurwa kare, zvanhasi, uye ramangwana, ipapo indivisibility kwayo chete achiri mhenyu chisarudzo. Sextus Empiricus
(Inotaura pamusoro Pyrrhonism 3. 143-5) hunochengetedza nokupeta pamusoro chokwadi nharo kuti mukurukurirano vose
nguva yokupedzisira pane maturo, saka kuti hapana chinogona kuzivikanwa vamwe panyaya iyi.
21 Ona pazasi, XI. xxix (39) iri yokusafa ‘kutsauswa zviri multiplicity’ kufunga pamusoro kare, chipo,
uye ramangwana, kana chokwadi isingagumi ndiyo simultaneity ari chipo.
22 Kufanana Plotinus (4. 4. 12. 28-32), Augustine rinobvumira kududzirwa rinotangira zivo
ramangwana sezvo rakafuridzirwa tinzwisise zvinorehwa nezviitiko pane mantic kufadzwa kuturika rokufunga.
23 Augustine maonero akanga akatangira nokuda nevaStoiki.
24 Augustine forestalls vatsoropodzi vechiKristu vangafunga ake abstruse kubvunzurudza kure ake zvakakodzera
Basa yebhaibheri Kutsanangura, uye anodana Mediation Kristu mupristi anopa kuwana
zvakavanzika naBaba.
25 Plotinus (3. 7. 8. 8-19) Saizvozvowo anoramba maonero ichi. Maonero chinofanira kuwanikwa St Basil. asi
Augustine angave achifunga hwaPlato waTimio (39 CD) yakanga kuwanika Cicero raMwari Latin.
vanyori vakawanda vekare, kubva munyori Genesi 1: 14 zvichienda mberi, akacherechedza kuti edu makore, mwedzi, uye
mazuva kwakavakirwa ichitanga mitumbi yokudenga. Asi Augustine nharo ndechokuti hapana humbowo hunhu
nguva inogona Rinobva ichi, kana kubva kufamba chero muviri. Time haasi kufanana pamwe
zvidzidzo iyo isu zvausingafungi usaruyera.
26 Plotinus (3. 7. 12. 34) ane mufananidzo chete.
27 Plotinus 3. 7. 11. 41 (TR. Armstrong) anotaura nguva sezvo ‘munhu akatambanudzira (diastasis) upenyu … upenyu
mweya mu sangano ndima panzira imwe upenyu imwe ‘. chinyorwa ichi ingave kufurirwa
Augustine Chiri coining rokuti dislenlio. Asi muna Augustine mupfungwa chiitiko ichi kuparadzira
kubva mweya iri successiveness uye siyana mirayiridzo iri inorwadza uye mwoyo ruzivo, kuti anogona
vanotaura ruponeso sezvo kununurwa nguva (cf. kumusoro, ix. IV (10)). Musoro kunokudziridzwa pazasi,
kunyanya mu XI. xxix (39) apo mutauro St waPauro pamusoro ‘vari rwakatambanudzwa’ (VaF. 3: 13) inofambidzana kwakabatana
nepfungwa Plotinus (6. 6. 1.5) kuti multiplicity ari kudonha kubva mumwe uye ‘unoratidzwa mune
vaparadzirwa ‘.
28 Ambrose kuti rwiyo manheru.
29 Plotinus (3. 7. 11): Nguva mweya kupfuura kubva ezvinhu upenyu mumwe, uye haisi kunze
mweya.
30 Ona pamusoro XI. xxvi (33).
31 Augustine mufananidzo enhoroondo muitiro ndiko rwizi inoyerera kana nzizi, vakawanda dutu

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