Ittifsira taliskarsezzaWieed millbenefiji kbar tat

It-tifsira tal-iskarsezza

Wieħed mill-benefiċċji kbar tat-televiżjoni huwa li tippermettilna naraw kif in-nies fil-bqija tad-dinja jgħixu. Naraw li f’xi partijiet tad-dinja, bħall-Ewropa tal-Punent u l-Amerika, in-nies huma ġeneralment off. Stampi minn partijiet oħra tad-dinja, bħall-Afrika u l-Asja, juru miljuni ta ‘nies li jgħixu fil-faqar.

Jidher stramba ħafna għalhekk, li l-ekonomisti jgħidu li l-iskarsezza hija problema mad-dinja kollha, li hija karatteristika tas-soċjetajiet kollha.

Dan il-puzzle huwa spjegat billi tħares lejn il-mod kif tintuża l-kelma ‘skarsezza’ fl-ekonomija. Meta ekonomisti jgħidu li xi ħaġa hija skarsa, dawn ma jfissirx li huwa rari jew li biss kwantità żgħira ħafna hija disponibbli. Huma sempliċement ifissru li m’hemmx biżżejjed minnha biex tissodisfa kompletament ix-xewqat ta ‘kulħadd.

Meta l-kelma tintuża b’dan il-mod, huwa veru li tgħid li l-iskarsezza teżisti fil-pajjiżi kollha, kemm sinjuri kif ukoll fqar. Fil kollha kemm huma jridu aktar prodotti u servizzi milli jistgħu jiksbu. Huwa minħabba li r-rieda tagħhom mhumiex sodisfatti bis-sħiħ li n-nies jaħdmu kullimkien u jitolbu standards ta ‘għajxien ogħla u ogħla.

Xewqat bla limitu

Għaliex huwa li tant trid tibqa ‘mhux sodisfatt, minkejja ż-żidiet enormi fil-produzzjoni ta’ oġġetti u servizzi fi żminijiet moderni?

Raġuni importanti hija li r-rieda tagħna mhumiex limitati. Huma dejjem jikbru u jinbidlu. Kemm-il darba aħna jisimgħu l-kummenti, “Inti qatt sodisfatt” u “l-aktar ikollok, l-aktar trid”?

Il-progress tekniku għandu influwenza importanti. Hija tkompli tipproduċi fluss apparentement bla tmiem ta ‘modi aktar interessanti u aktar attraenti ta’ sodisfazzjoni xewqat tagħna. Karozzi tal-mutur, magni tal-ħasil, friġġijiet, telefons domestiċi u settijiet tat-televiżjoni issa huma meqjusa bħala ħtiġijiet minn ħafna familji fil-Gran Brittanja. Iżda biss mitt sena ilu, jew ma kinux jeżistu, jew kienu meqjusa bħala lussu kbir, disponibbli biss għall-ftit privileġġati.

Oġġetti ekonomiċi huma oġġetti skarsi

Jidher li m’hemm l-ebda limitu għan-nies u l-ebda limitu għal ideat ġodda biex jissodisfawhom. Fi kwalunkwe mument fil-ħin, hemm limitu għall-ammont ta ‘oġġetti u servizz li jistgħu jiġu prodotti. Ir-riżorsi ekonomiċi – art, xogħol, materjali, fjuwil, fabbriki, makkinarju, eċċ. – li huma meħtieġa biex jipproduċu oġġetti u servizzi huma limitati fil-provvista.

Huwa veru li hekk kif jgħaddi ż-żmien, il-progress tekniku jippermettilna nipproduċu aktar mill-affarijiet li n-nies iridu. Il-problema hija li r-rieda tagħna jidhru li jikbru malajr kemm, jew saħansitra aktar malajr milli, l-abilità tagħna li nipproduċu oġġetti u servizzi.

Il-problema bażika tal-ekonomija, għalhekk, hija li r-riżorsi ekonomiċi huma limitati fil-provvista iżda x-xewqat tan-nies jidhru illimitati.
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The meaning of scarcity

One of the great benefits of television is that it enables us to see how people in the rest of the world live. We see that in some parts of the world, such as Western Europe and North America, people are generally well off. Pictures from other parts of the world, such as Africa and Asia, show millions of people living in poverty.

It seems very strange therefore, that economists say that scarcity is a world-wide problem, that it is a feature of all societies.

This puzzle is explained by looking at the way the word ‘scarcity’ is used in economics. When economists say that something is scarce, they do not mean that it is rare or that only a very small quantity is available. They simply mean that there is not enough of it to completely satisfy everyone’s wants.

When the word is used in this way, it is true to say that scarcity exists in all countries, both rich and poor. In all of them people want more goods and services than they can obtain. It is because their wants are not fully satisfied that people everywhere work for and demand higher and higher living standards.

Unlimited wants

Why is it that so many wants remain unsatisfied, in spite of the enormous increases in the output of goods and services in modern times?

An important reason is that our wants are not limited. They are always growing and changing. How often do we hear the comments, ‘You are never satisfied’ and ‘The more you have, the more you want’?

Technical progress has an important influence. It continues to produce a seemingly-endless stream of more interesting and more attractive ways of satisfying our wants. Motor cars, washing machines, refrigerators, domestic telephones and television sets are now regarded as necessities by many families in Britain. Yet only a hundred years ago, these things either did not exist, or were regarded as great luxuries, available only to the privileged few.

Economic goods are scarce goods

There seems to be no limit to people’s wants and no limit to new ideas for satisfying them. At any moment in time, there is a limit to the amount of goods and service which can be produced. The economic resources – land, labour, materials, fuel, factories, machinery, etc. – which are needed to produce goods and services are limited in supply.

It is true that as time goes by, technical progress enables us to produce more of the things people want. The problem is that our wants seem to grow as fast as, or even faster than, our ability to produce goods and services.

The basic problem of economics, therefore, is that economic resources are limited in supply but people’s wants seem to be unlimited.
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Okushiwo ukusweleka

Enye yezinzuzo ezinkulu zethelevishini ukuthi kusenza sikwazi ukubona ukuthi abantu emhlabeni wonke bahlala kanjani. Sibona ukuthi kwezinye izingxenye zomhlaba, njengeNtshonalanga Yurophu naseNyakatho Melika, abantu ngokuvamile bahle. Izithombe ezivela kwezinye izingxenye zomhlaba, njenge-Afrika ne-Asia, zibonisa izigidi zabantu abaphila ebuphofini.

Kubukeka sengathi kuyamangaza kakhulu, ukuthi ezomnotho zithi ukusweleka kuyinkinga yomhlaba wonke, ukuthi kuyisici sayo yonke imiphakathi.

Le puzzle ichazwa ngokubheka indlela igama elithi ‘Scarcity’ elisetshenziswa ngayo kwezomnotho. Lapho izazi zezomnotho zithi okuthile kunqabile, akusho ukuthi kuyaqabukela noma lokho kuphela inani elincane kakhulu elikhona. Kusho nje ukuthi akwanele ngakho ukuze kwanelise ngokuphelele izidingo zawo wonke umuntu.

Lapho iZwi lisetshenziswa ngale ndlela, kuyiqiniso ukusho ukuthi ukusweleka kukhona kuwo wonke amazwe, abacebile nabampofu. Kubo bonke abantu bafuna izimpahla nezinsizakalo eziningi kunalokho abangazithola. Kungenxa yokuthi izidingo zabo azinelisi ngokuphelele ukuthi abantu kuyo yonke indawo basebenza futhi bafuna izindinganiso zokuphila eziphakeme neziphakeme.

Izidingo Ezingenamkhawulo

Kungani kufanele izifiso eziningi kangaka zihlale zingagculiseki, naphezu kokwenyuswa okukhulu ekuphumeni kwezimpahla nezinsizakalo ezikhathini zanamuhla?

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