LandIlkelma art tittieed biex tfisser dawk irrigal

Land

Il-kelma “art” tittieħed biex tfisser dawk ir-rigali kollha tan-natura li huma disponibbli għalina għas-sodisfazzjon tax-xewqat tagħna. Tinkludi, għalhekk,
Il-fertilità naturali tal-ħamrija, \ t
Minerali fil – wiċċ tad – dinja, u. \ T
Foresti, xmajjar, u l-għana fil-baħar.

Parti sorprendentement żgħira mill-wiċċ tad-dinja hija xierqa għall-abitazzjoni mill-bnedmin. 72 fil-mija tal-wiċċ tad-dinja huwa okkupat mill-oċeani, li jħalli biss 28 fil-mija bħala art. Iżda ħafna minn din l-art mhix adatta għas-soluzzjoni tal-bniedem jew, għax hija koperta mis-silġ jew tikkonsisti minn deżert, ġungla tropikali jew firxiet ta ‘muntanji.

Il-fatt li l-art, għall-kuntrarju tax-xogħol u l-kapital, huwa limitat fil-provvista wassal lil xi ekonomisti bikrija biex jagħmlu xi tbassir pessimisti. Fl-aħħar tas-seklu dsatax, Thomas Malthus ra ftit prospett ta ‘kwalunkwe titjib permanenti fl-istandards tal-għajxien. Huwa jemmen li l-popolazzjoni għandha tendenza naturali li tikber aktar malajr mill-output ta ‘l-ikel minn ammont fiss ta’ avvenimenti ta ‘l-art sussegwentement ippruvatlu ħażin – żoni vasti ġodda li jipproduċu l-ikel ġew żviluppati fid-dinja l-ġdida, u standards ta’ għixien ogħla wasslu għal tnaqqis fl-2007 ir-rata tat-twelid. Madankollu, ir-rati għoljin preżenti ta ‘tkabbir tal-popolazzjoni f’partijiet ta’ l-Afrika u l-Asja qed iwasslu għal biżgħat li l-previżjoni ta ‘Malthus tista’ tkun korretta.

Ħafna mill-problemi fl-ekonomija, madankollu, mhumiex dwar il-provvista totali ta ‘art, iżda dwar il-provvista ta’ art għal xi użu partikolari. Dan jista ‘jinbidel, peress li l-istess biċċa art tista’ spiss titqiegħed għal użi differenti. Il-provvista ta ‘art għall-mergħa tista’ tiżdied billi titnaqqas l-ammont ta ‘art li tinħarat. Il-provvista ta ‘art għall-bini tista’ tiżdied billi titnaqqas il-provvista ta ‘art agrikola.

Madankollu, hemm xi każijiet fejn il-provvista ta ‘art għal użu partikolari hija ffissata. Eżempju ovvju huwa n-numru ta ‘siti għall-ħwienet, l-uffiċċji, il-banek, il-kafejiet, eċċ. Fit-triq għolja. Xejn ma jista ‘jsir biex tiżdied il-provvista ta’ dawn is-siti.

Huwa veru wkoll li hemm provvista strettament limitata ta ‘minerali fil-wiċċ tad-dinja. Dan il-punt ġie ressqet id-dar għalina bit-tħassib preżenti dwar il-provvista futura taż-żejt. Minerali huma riżorsi li ma jistgħux jinbidlu.

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Land

The word ‘land’ is taken to mean all those gifts of nature which are available to us for the satisfaction of our wants. It includes, therefore,
The natural fertility of the soil,
The minerals in the earth’s surface, and
Forests, rivers, and the riches in the sea.

A surprisingly small part of the earth’s surface is suitable for habitation by human beings. 72 per cent of the earth’s surface is occupied by oceans, which leaves only 28 per cent as land. But much of this land is not suitable for human settlement either, because it is covered by ice or consists of desert, tropical jungle or towering mountain ranges.

The fact that land, unlike labour and capital, is limited in supply led some early economists to make some pessimistic predictions. In the late nineteenth century, Thomas Malthus saw little prospect of any permanent improvement in living standards. He believed that population has a natural tendency to grow faster than the output of food from a fixed amount of land events subsequently proved him wrong – vast new food-producing areas were developed in the New World, and higher living standards led to a fall in the birth rate. However, the present high rates of population growth in parts of Africa and Asia are leading to fears that Malthus’s prediction may yet prove correct.

Most of the problems in economics, however, are not about the total supply of land, but about the supply of land for some particular use. This can be changed, since the same piece of land can often be put to different uses. The supply of land for grazing can be increased by reducing the amount of arable land. The supply of land for building can be increased by reducing the supply of agricultural land.

There are some cases, however, where the supply of land for a particular use is fixed. An obvious example is the number of sites for shops, offices, banks, cafes, etc. in the high street. Nothing can be done to increase the supply of these sites.

It is also true that there is a strictly limited supply of minerals in the earth’s surface. This point has been brought home to us by the present worries about the future supply of oil. Minerals are non-replaceable resources.

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Izwe

Igama elithi ‘lizwe’ lithathwe ukuze lisho zonke lezo zipho zemvelo ezitholakala kithi ukwaneliseka kwezidingo zethu. Kubandakanya-ke,
Ukuzala kwemvelo kwenhlabathi,
Amaminerali asendaweni yomhlaba, futhi
Amahlathi, imifula, nengcebo olwandle.

Ingxenye encane emangazayo yomhlaba ilungele ukuhlala ngabantu. Amaphesenti angama-72 omhlaba ahlala olwandle, ashiya amaphesenti angama-28 njengezwe. Kepha iningi laleli lizwe alilungele ukukhokhelwa kwabantu, ngoba limbozwe yiqhwa noma liqukethe ugwadule, ihlathi elishisayo noma izintaba eziphakeme.

Iqiniso lokuthi umhlaba, ngokungafani nezabasebenzi kanye nenhloko-dolobha, kukhawulelwe ekuhlinzekeni kwaholela ekutheni abanye bezondla bezomnotho baye benza okuthile okuphambanisekile. Ngekhulu leshumi nesishiyagalolunye ngekhulu leshumi nesishiyagalolunye, uThomas Malthus wabona ithemba elincane lokuthuthuka okungapheli ezindinganisweni zokuphila. Ukholelwe ukuthi inani labantu linokuthambekela kwemvelo kokukhula ngokushesha kunokuphuma kwezindleko ezinqunyelwe zezehlakalo zomhlaba kamuva kwaze kwavela kulungile – kwakhiwa izindawo ezintsha ezikhiqizwa ukudla okuthe xaxa ezweni elisha, kwaholela ekuweni Izinga lokuzalwa. Kodwa-ke, amanani aphezulu aphezulu okukhula kwezingxenye ze-Afrika nase-Asia aholela ekwesabeni ukuthi ukubikezela kukaMalthus kungenzeka kube yinto efanele.

Iningi lezinkinga kwezomnotho, noma kunjalo, azisho mayelana nokunikezwa komhlaba, kepha mayelana nokuhlinzekwa komhlaba ngokusetshenziswa okuthile okuthile. Lokhu kungashintshwa, ngoba ucezu lomhlaba olufanayo luvame ukufakwa ekusetshenzisweni okuhlukile. Ukuhlinzekwa komhlaba wamadlelo kungandiswa ngokunciphisa inani lomhlaba olimekayo. Ukuhlinzekwa komhlaba wokwakha kungandiswa ngokunciphisa ukulethwa komhlaba wezolimo.

Kukhona ezinye izimo, noma kunjalo, lapho kulungiswe khona indawo ethile. Isibonelo esisobala yinombolo yezindawo zezitolo, amahhovisi, amabhange, amathofi, njll. Emgwaqweni ophakeme. Akukho okungenziwa ukwandisa ukulethwa kwalezi zingosi.

Kuyiqiniso futhi ukuthi kunokuhlinzekwa okulinganiselwe kwamaminerali alinganiselwe emhlabeni womhlaba. Leli phuzu lilethelwe kithi ngokukhathazeka okukhona mayelana nokunikezwa kwamafutha esizayo. Amaminerali ayizinsizakusebenza ezingenakushintshwa.

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Land

Die woord ‘land’ word geneem om al die geskenke van die natuur te beteken wat vir ons beskikbaar is vir die bevrediging van ons behoeftes. Dit sluit dus in
Die natuurlike vrugbaarheid van die grond,
Die minerale op die aarde se oppervlak, en
Bosse, riviere, en die rykdom in die see.

‘N Verrassend klein deel van die Aarde se oppervlak is geskik vir bewoning deur mense. 72 persent van die aarde se oppervlak word deur oseane beset, wat slegs 28 persent as land verlaat. Maar baie van hierdie land is ook nie geskik vir menslike nedersetting nie, want dit word deur ys bedek of bestaan ​​uit woestyn, tropiese oerwoud of toringende bergreekse.

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