Spia talgala u lopportunitMinabba li ma nistgux ik

Spiża tal-għażla u l-opportunità

Minħabba li ma nistgħux ikollna dak kollu li rridu, aħna sfurzati nagħmlu għażliet. Bid-dħul limitat tagħna ma nistgħux nixtru l-affarijiet kollha li nixtiequ li jkollna. Meta nagħmlu għażla, nagħżlu mill-affarijiet li nistgħu noffru lil dawk li jagħtuna l-aktar sodisfazzjon jew divertiment.

Meta nagħmlu għażla, xi ħaġa għandha tingħata jew mitluf. Il-ħaġa li aħna niddeċiedu li nċedu huwa s-sagrifiċċju għandna nagħmlu sabiex niksbu l-ħaġa li għażilna.

Dak li nċedu huwa deskritt bħala l-ispiża tal-opportunità tal-ksib tal-ħaġa li għażilt. Pereżempju, ejja ngħidu li sewwieq għandu biżżejjed flus biex jixtri xi petrol jew ikla f’ristorant. Hija tagħżel li tixtri l-petrol. L-ispiża tal-opportunità tal-petrol hija l-ikla li trid tirrinunzja.

Dħul limitat iġiegħlek tagħżel
Biljett għal kunċert pop jew xi rekords.
L-għażla tiegħek hija l-biljett għall-kunċert.
L-ispiża tal-opportunità hija r-rekords li għandek mitluf.

L-opportunità tiswa = is-sagrifiċċju tal-iktar alternattiva mixtieqa li jmiss.

L-ekonomija hija l-istudju ta ‘…
Is-sodisfazzjon tax-xewqat …
Li jinvolvi l-konsum ta ‘oġġetti u servizzi …
Li huma prodotti b’riżorsi skarsi.

Xewqat huma illimitati.
Ir-riżorsi huma limitati fil-provvista.

Dan jinvolvi l-għażla …

Li jfisser li l-oġġetti ekonomiċi kollha għandhom spiża tal-opportunità.

Meta nixtru xi ħaġa, aħna normalment nagħmlu l-flus bi skambju għaliha. Dak li qed nċedu, madankollu, hija l-iktar ħaġa mixtieqa li setgħet xtrajt b’dak l-istess ammont ta ‘flus. Ditta jista ‘jkollha biżżejjed fondi biex tixtri kompjuter ġdid jew li terġa’ tirranġa u tirrefja l-uffiċċji tagħha. Jekk jagħżel li jixtri l-kompjuter, l-ispiża vera tat-tagħmir tkun l-opportunità mitlufa biex ittejjeb l-uffiċċji tagħha.

Il-komodità kollha kemm hi, bħall-individwu u d-ditta, għandhom ukoll jagħmlu għażliet. Jekk jintużaw riżorsi ekonomiċi biex jibnu djar, l-ispiża tal-flus se jkunu l-pagamenti magħmula għall-art, materjali u xogħol. L-ispiża tal-opportunità se tkun l-isptar, l-iskola, il-librerija jew il-blokka tal-uffiċċju li setgħu nbnew bl-istess riżorsi.

Oġġetti b’xejn

Jekk kien hemm provvista illimitata ta ‘riżorsi ekonomiċi, u ammonti illimitati ta’ kull komodità jistgħu jiġu prodotti, trid tkun sodisfatta bis-sħiħ. Skarsezza ma teżistix. Ma jkun hemm l-ebda ħtieġa għall-ekonomija. Il-problema tal-għażla tisparixxi. Aħna ma jkollhomx għalfejn imorru mingħajr ħaġa waħda sabiex tikseb ieħor. L-oġġetti kollha jkunu oġġetti ħielsa – ma jkun hemm l-ebda spiża tal-opportunità. Il-produzzjoni ta ‘aktar ħaġa waħda ma jfissirx li tipproduċi inqas minn oħra.

Hemm relattivament ftit oġġetti ħielsa. L-iktar eżempju ovvju huwa l-arja. Eżempji oħra jistgħu jinkludu silġ fil-Pol tat-Tramuntana. F’pajjiż jaħraq, ovvjament, is-silġ mhuwiex tajjeb. Ir-ramel fid-deżert tas-Saħara huwa tajjeb, imma r-ramel fil-Gran Brittanja mhux.

Fil-Gran Brittanja, bosta affarijiet huma deskritti bħala ‘b’xejn’ għax nistgħu nakkwistawhom mingħajr ma nħallsu prezz. Pereżempju, għandna edukazzjoni ‘b’xejn’, servizzi tas-saħħa ‘ħielsa’ u libreriji ‘ħielsa’. F’dawn il-każijiet, madankollu, prezz żero ma jfissirx spiża żero. Dawn is-servizzi kollha huma prodotti b’riżorsi skarsi – art, xogħol, fjuwil, materjali, eċċ. Kollha għandhom l-ispiża tal-opportunità u huma, għalhekk, mhux oġġetti ħielsa.

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Choice and opportunity cost

Since we cannot have everything we want, we are forced to make choices. With our limited income we cannot buy all the things we would like to have. When we make a choice, we select from the things we can afford those which give us the most satisfaction or pleasure.

When we make a choice, something has to be given up or forgone. The thing we decide to give up is the sacrifice we have to make in order to obtain the thing we have chosen.

What we give up is described as the opportunity cost of obtaining the thing we have chosen. For example, suppose a motorist has enough money to buy some petrol or a meal in a restaurant. She chooses to buy the petrol. The opportunity cost of the petrol is the meal that she has to forgo.

Limited income forces you to choose
A ticket for a pop concert or some records.
Your choice is the ticket for the concert.
The opportunity cost is the records you have forgone.

Opportunity cost = the sacrifice of the next most desired alternative.

Economics is the study of…
The satisfaction of wants…
Which involves the consumption of goods and services…
Which are produced with scarce resources.

Wants are unlimited.
Resources are limited in supply.

This involves choice…

Which means that all economic goods have an opportunity cost.

When we buy something, we normally hand over money in exchange for it. What we are really giving up, however, is the next most desirable thing we could have bought with that same amount of money. A firm may have sufficient funds to purchase a new computer or to redecorate and refurnish its offices. If it chooses to buy the computer, the true cost of the equipment will be the lost opportunity to improve its offices.

The commodity as a whole, just like the individual and the firm, must also make choices. If economic resources are used to build houses, the money cost will be the payments made for land, materials and labour. The opportunity cost will be the hospital, school, library or office block which might have been built with the same resources.

Free goods

If there were an unlimited supply of economic resources, and unlimited amounts of every commodity could be produced, human wants could be fully satisfied. Scarcity would not exist. There would be no need to economise. The problem of choice would disappear. We would not have to go without one thing in order to obtain another. All goods would be free goods – there would be no opportunity cost. Producing more of one thing would not mean producing less of another.

There are relatively few free goods. The most obvious example is air. Other examples might include ice at the North Pole. in a hot country, of course, ice is not a free good. Sand in the Sahara Desert is a free good, but sand in Britain is not.

In Britain, several things are described as ‘free’ because we can obtain them without paying a price. For example, we have ‘free’ education, ‘free’ health services and ‘free’ libraries. In these cases, however, a zero price does not mean a zero cost. All these services are produced with scarce resources – land, labour, fuel, materials, etc. they all have an opportunity cost and are, therefore, not free goods.

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